Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about two hundred species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
They are found in all regions of the Earth except Antarctica and some remote islands.
Owls are divided into two families: the true owls or typical owls, Strigidae; and the barn-owls, Tytonidae.
Owls possess large forward-facing eyes and ear-holes; a hawk-like beak; a flat face; and usually a conspicuous circle of feathers, a facial disc, around each eye.
The feathers making up this disc can be adjusted in order to sharply focus sounds from varying distances onto the owls' asymmetrically placed ear cavities.
Most birds of prey have eyes on the sides of their heads, but the stereoscopic nature of the owl's forward-facing eyes permits the greater sense of depth perception necessary for low-light hunting.
Although owls have binocular vision, their large eyes are fixed in their sockets—as are those of most other birds—so they must turn their entire head to change views.
As owls are farsighted, they are unable to clearly see anything within a few centimeters of their eyes.
Caught prey can be felt by owls with the use of filoplumes—hairlike feathers on the beak and feet that act as "feelers".
Their far vision, particularly in low light, is exceptionally good.
Owls can rotate their heads and necks as much as 270 degrees.
Owls have fourteen neck vertebrae compared to seven in humans, which makes their necks more flexible.
They also have adaptations to their circulatory systems, permitting rotation without cutting off blood to the brain: the foramina in their vertebrae through which the vertebral arteries pass are about ten times the diameter of the artery, instead of about the same size as the artery like in humans; the vertebral arteries enter the cervical vertebrae higher than in other birds, giving the vessels some slack; and the carotid arteries unite in a very large anastomosis or junction, the largest of any bird's, preventing blood supply from being cut off while they rotate their necks.