The interconnection between neighboring tubes was made by abundant small pores or canals that were schizogenous intercellular spaces between the wall cells.
High water levels and inundation caused mangroves to die in The Narrows in 2013/2014 which caused concern.
The aim of this study was to investigate the response of the mangroves to fluctuating environmental conditions.
This was done by measuring the population structure and sediment characteristics at four sites in 2010, 20. Lucia in 2013 via the Beach Canal and Back Channel as well as good rains led to an increase in water level which caused permanent inundation of pneumatophores (aerial roots of the white mangrove Avicennia marina) and anoxic conditions resulting in the mortality of mangroves fringing the main estuary channel (Site 3 on The Narrows).
Self-thinning is a natural process that has occurred at Sites 1 and 2 while Site 4, which was previously considered a dying population, had a recruitment of a new seedling cohort in 2014.
The aerenchyma differentiation in cable roots, pneumatophores, anchor roots, and feeding roots of the mangrove plant, Avicennia marina (Verbenaceae) was analyzed using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope.
In all types, cortex cells were arranged in longitudinal columns extending from the endodermis to the epidermis.
No cells in the cortex had intercellular spaces at the root tip (0-150 microm), and aerenchyma started developing at 200 microm from the root apex.The aerenchyma formation was due to cell separation (schizogeny) rather than cell lysis.The cell separation occurred between the longitudinal cell columns, forming long intercellular spaces along the root axis.During aerenchyma formation, the cortex cells enlarged longitudinally by 1.8-3.9 times and widened horizontally by 2.2-2.9 times.As a result, the aerenchyma had a pronounced tubular structure that was radially long, elliptical or oval in cross section and that ran parallel to the root axis.The tube had tapering ends, as did vessel elements, although there were no perforated plates.