Schizoid personality dating
Schizoid personality dating
London: Kegan, Paul, Trench & Trubner] portrayal of observable schizoid behaviours which he organized into three groups of characteristics; (1) unsociability, quietness, reservedness, seriousness, and eccentricity; (2) timidity, shyness with feelings, sensitivity, nervousness, excitability, and fondness of nature and books, and (3) pliability, kindliness, honesty, indifference, silence, and cold emotional attitudes.
The second path, that of dynamic psychiatry, began with observations by Eugen Bleuler (1924) [Eugen Bleuler- "Textbook of Psychiatry", New York: Macmillon (1924)] who observed that the schizoid person, and schizoid pathology were not things to be set apart. Fairbairn presented his seminal work on the schizoid personality in which most of what is known today about schizoid phenomena can be found. A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following: ::# neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family ::# almost always chooses solitary activities ::# has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person ::# takes pleasure in few, if any, activities::# lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives ::# appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others ::# shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity : B.[Conclusion of Bleuler's observations by Ralph Klein p.5 in Disorders of The Self: New Therapeutic Horizons: Brunner/Mazel (1995)] In 1940 W. Here Fairbairn delineated four central schizoid themes; firstly, the need to regulate interpersonal distance as a central focus of concern; secondly, the ability to mobilize self-preservative defenses and self-reliance; thirdly a pervasive tension between the anxiety-laden need for attachment, and the defensive need for distance, which manifests in observable behavior as "indifference"; and fourthly an overvaluation of the inner world at the expense of the outer world. Does not occur exclusively during the course of and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition.[ Recounted by Ralph Klein- Disorders of the Self: New Therapeutic Horizons, Brunner/Mazel p. DSM-IV, which is an earlier version of DSM-IV-TR, does say that a person with Schizoid Personality Disorder may feel sensitive to the opinions of others and may even feel lonely but can not do anything about the loneliness due to the disorder. Schizoid personality disorders:* Contributing constitutional-maturational patterns: Highly sensitive, shy, easily overstimulated* Central tension/preoccupation: Fear of closeness/longing for closeness* Central affects: General emotional pain when overstimulated, affects so powerful they feel they must suppress them* Characteristic pathogenic belief about self: Dependency and love are dangerous* Characteristic pathogenic belief about others: The social world is impinging, dangerously engulfing* Central ways of defending: Withdrawal, both physically and into fantasy and idiosyncratic preoccupations Guntrip criteria Ralph Klein, Clinical Director of the Masterson Institute delineates the following nine characteristics of the schizoid personality as described by Harry Guntrip: introversion, withdrawnness, narcissism, self-sufficiency, a sense of superiority, loss of affect, loneliness, depersonalization, and Regression. 13-23 in Disorders of the Self: New Therapeutic Horizons, Brunner/Mazel (1995).9 (1995)] Following Fairbairn, the descriptive psychiatry tradition has continued to produce rich explorations on the schizoid character, most notably from writers Nannarello (1953); Laing (1960); Winnicott (1965); Guntrip (1969); Khan (1974); Akhtar (1987); Seinfeld (1991); Manfield (1992); and Klein (1995). All parenthesized Guntrip quotes in this section are excerpted from- Harry Guntrip, "Schizoid Phenomena, Object-Relations, and The Self".characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, and emotional coldness. Reber- Dictionary of Psychology, Penguin p.690 (1995)] SPD is reasonably rare compared with other personality disorders. | year = 1993 | title = The epidemiology of personality disorders. | journal = Journal of Personality Disorders | issue = Spring issue, Suppl. As an interesting comment on the usual low-prevalence figures for this disorder, Philip Manfield in "Split Self, Split Object", Arenson (1992) states that "I believe that the schizoid condition is far more common.....Its prevalence is estimated at less than 1% of the general population. comprising perhaps as many as 40 percent of all personality disorders.
This huge discrepancy is probably largely because someone with a schizoid disorder is less likely to seek treatment than someone with other axis-II disorders." p.204.Manfield backs this claim with a study by Valliant & Drake (1985) who found the over 40% of a particular sample group of inner city males were schizoid.] History The term schizoid was coined in 1908 by in that it was not viewed in terms of psychopathology.Bleuler also labeled the morbid but non-psychotic exaggeration of this tendency the “schizoid personality”.[Details recorded by Salman Akhtar in Schizoid Personality Disorder: A Synthesis of Developmental, Dynamic, and Descriptive Features.American Journal of Psychotherapy, 41, 499-518] Since then, studies on the schizoid personality have developed along two separate paths; firstly, the " tradition" which includes the exploration of covert or unconscious motivation and character structure as elaborated by classic psychoanalysis and object-relations theory.The descriptive tradition began in Ernst Kretschmer’s (1925)Ernst Kretschmer- "Physique and Character".